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4. Evidence Source

IMPACTS (NEGATIVE)

No

Citation / Evidence

Detail of citation, evidence to support

Individual

Health impact

123

Productivity Commission Report on Gambling (PC) 2010

Percentage of people who stated their health was affected by their gambling (S. 4.4) Gambling has adverse health outcomes (Finding 4.1).

124

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Health impacts include suicide, mental health issues, depression and anxiety, guilt, loss of enjoyment (S. 7 – Refer to Table 7.1 and Figure 7.1)

125

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

Problem and moderate risk gamblers more likely to have poor health, and to have experienced illness or injury in the last 12 months. Also more likely to have co-morbidities (Ch. 8).

126

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Health impacts include depression, stress, anxiety, lethargy, insomnia, poor nutrition, suicidal thoughts, increased caffeine/nicotine consumption, sweats, confusion, panic and ulcers (Ch. 8).

127

Thomas, S.A. and Jackson, A.C. (2008). Risk and Protective Factors, Depression and Comorbidities in Problem Gambling

Severe mental disorder, alcohol use, depression and smoking.

128

Law, M. (2005), House of cards, Problem gambling and low income earners in Tasmania SARC

People with gambling problems have been found to have an incidence of poor health twice that of people experiencing low level gambling problems. Ill-health, high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, food insecurity, stress and insomnia (S.5).

129

Chow-Fairhall et al 2006, NAGS Conference Paper, Suicide and problem gambling

Strong link between suicide and problem gambling.

130

Lin et al 2010, Time and money spent gambling and the relationship with quality-of-life measures

Time spent on EGMs was the greatest risk for people experiencing lower quality of life in New Zealand.

Higher risk employment position

131

CGER 2009 Gambling Problems: Gambling and Problem Gambling Amongst Gaming Venue Staff

Gaming venue staff are more likely to gamble more often than the general public, and at significantly higher risk of becoming a problem gambler (Ch.6).

Loss of personal finances

132

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Debts, loans, bankruptcy, financial hardship, loss of assets (S.7 - Refer to Figure 7.1)

133

VCGLR Statistics relating to EGM expenditure

Losses from EGM gambling at a venue level.

Interpersonal

Relationship breakdown

134

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

On average, one problem gambler affects seven people around them. Relationship breakdown as a result of lack of trust, increased arguments, stress and financial hardship (S.7).

135

DOJ 2009 (Hare), A Study of Gambling in Victoria – Problem Gambling from a Public Health Perspective

Problem or moderate risk gamblers are more likely to have experienced divorce, marriage or relationship problems or increase in arguments with people you are close to (Ch.8).

136

GRP 2004 Problem Gamblers, Loved Ones and Service Providers (New Focus Research)

Negative impact on individuals, families and communities of problem gambling including: loss of housing, debt and suicide. Evidence of divorce and separation as a result of gambling.

137

Law, M. (2005), House of cards, Problem gambling and low income earners in Tasmania,SARC

Breakdown of relationships between partners, parents, children and siblings due to neglect, arguments, stress, ill-health and loss of trust (S. 4).

138

Dickson-Swift et al, The experience of living with a problem gambler

Considers the significant effects that gambling has on financial security, family relationships, and physical and emotional health of families and friends of problem gamblers.

Family violence

139

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Domestic violence can be triggered or exacerbated by gambling (S.7 - Refer Figure 7.1).

140

Community West 2007, Exploring the Links Between Family Violence and Problem Gambling

Family violence can be either the cause of gambling (gambling as a means of coping), or the outcome (increase in violence due to stressors created from gambling) (Vol.1).

Loss of finances from the family, including not repaying borrowed money

141

Law, M. (2005), House of cards, Problem gambling and low income earners in Tasmania, SARC

People with a gambling problem spend 22% of their household income on gambling. People who gamble but who do not have a problem spend less than 2%. Loss of finances results in health issues, food insecurity, housing insecurity and inability to pay bills.

142

VCGLR Statistics relating to EGM expenditure

Losses from EGM gambling at a venue level.

143

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Financial impacts. Adverse financial impacts include borrowing money without repaying, borrowing from loan sharks, selling belongings, fraud (S. 7 – Table 7.13).

Intergenerational transmission of problem gambling to children of problem gamblers

144

GRA 2010, Children at Risk of Developing Problem Gambling

Children of problem gamblers are significantly more likely to develop gambling problems themselves.

Family health problems through inability to pay bills, medical costs or buy nutritious food.

145

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Health impacts include suicide, mental health issues, depression and anxiety, guilt, loss of enjoyment (S. 7 - Refer to Table 7.1 and Figure 7.1).

146

GRP 2004, Problem Gamblers, Loved Ones and Service Providers (New Focus Research)

Negative impacts of problem gambling on families.

147

Law, M. (2005), House of cards, Problem gambling and low income earners in Tasmania, SARC

Lack of finances results in food insecurity, sanitation problems through an inability to pay bills, housing instability (S.5).

148

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Gambling can adversely affect nutritional health of the gambler and their family. The nutrition and care of children may be neglected during gambling sessions and general household hygiene may be compromised when gambling debts result in unpaid electricity and water bills (Ch. 8).

149

GRP 2004, Problem Gamblers, Loved Ones and Service Providers (New Focus)

Negative impact on individuals, families and communities of problem gambling including: loss of housing, debt and suicide ideation.

Organisational

Impact on community support services

150

Deakin University 2005, Gambling and the impact on community services in Eastern Melbourne

Lack of data collection means empirical analysis is not available. Qualitative data revealed that people increased their use of community services as a direct result of gambling. Impacts of gambling are highly variable and gambling is often indicative of other problems.

151

AIHW 2009, Problem gambling amongst those seeking homelessness services

In 2007-08, there were 2,462 Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) support periods where the client was identified as having gambling problems (1.2%)

152

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Work productivity can decrease as a result of gambling (Ch.7).

Workplace fraud

153

Warfield 2007, Gambling motivated Fraud 1998-2007

Link between fraud and gambling in Australia

154

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Fraud and embezzlement as a result of gambling are underreported , not detected or disclosed (Ch. 9).

Decrease in workplace productivity

155

GRP 2004, Problem Gamblers, Loved Ones and Service Providers (New Focus Research)

Evidence of poor study or work performance.

156

GRA 2010, Review of Australian Gambling Research

Work productivity (Ch. 3).

157

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Problem gamblers reported loss of productivity, impact on work behaviour, pre-occupation with gambling, absenteeism, moved jobs or job loss as impacts of gambling (S.7.4).

Decrease in revenue for existing venues

158

Laurimar Tavern (VCGR decision) 2010

This, and many other decisions including Stolberg, Bridge Inn and Laurimar discuss the amount of transferred revenue from existing gaming venues to the new venue, therefore a direct loss of income for those venues (Para. 61-75 'Expenditure')

Community

Redistribution of expenditure within the local economy

159

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Affects the economic performance of other industries; competes against other suppliers of goods and services for the consumers' dollar (S. 4.4 ) .

160

PC Report on Gambling 2010

Gambling industries do not create net employment benefits, because they divert employment from one part of the economy to another (S. 6.1).

161

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Expenditure may be drawn away from the café and restaurant sector (Ch.5, p.47).

162

SACES 2001, The impact of gaming machines on small regional economies

Gambling is financed by diverting other purchases which can impact on other business and employment in small regional economies.

Employment loss

163

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Gambling industry is a low-intensity employer (Ch.5. Impact of Electronic Gaming Machines on Employment)

164

Pinge 2008: Measuring the Economic Impact of Electronic Gaming Machines in Regional Areas - Bendigo, a case study

EGM gambling sector is a very capital intensive sector, with low employment intensity. Can lead to a fall of overall employment through redistribution of discretionary funding (p.5)

EGM industry a relatively small purchaser of inputs and that most supplies are not bought locally (p.5-6)

165

SACES 2008, Social and economic impact study into gambling in Tasmania V1

Found no evidence that the introduction of EGMs had a positive impact on the level of hotel and club sector employment in Tasmania (p.142)

Increased crime levels

166

DOJ 2010 (Wheeler) The Relationship Between Crime and Gaming Expenditure in Victoria

The relationship between the gambling industry as a whole and organised crime has been established in past literature (Pinto and Wilson, 1990) (S. 2.1.1).

Based on anecdotal evidence, the community believes that gamblers turn to crime to fund their habits (S. 2.2).

167

SACES 2008, Social and economic impact study into gambling in Tasmania V1

Significant relationship between gaming expenditure and crime rates in Tasmania (p.207).

168

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

Crime and gambling. Most gambling-related crime is finance driven and is underreported (Ch.9).

169

Allen Group 2009, Alcohol-related harm and the operation of licensed premises

Licensed venues with gaming are more likely than licensed venues without gaming to have criminal offenses recorded in or near their premises. Gaming is regarded as a risk factor.

170

PC Report on Gambling 2010

2008 survey found that gambling was the most common motivation for fraud. The average loss was $1.1 million per incident (Overview p.16).

Perceived safety

171

DOJ 2010 (Wheeler) The Relationship Between Crime and Gaming Expenditure in Victoria

Social interactions play a role in crimes; Crime can follow a diffusion process through direct contact between the first criminal and his or her followers (this requires contact between criminals), or a relocation diffusion where criminals move from one point to another, seeking further opportunities for crime – affects community (S. 5.1).

Based on anecdotal evidence, the community believes that gamblers turn to crime to fund their habits (S. 2.2).

Perceived community wellbeing

172

Romsey Hotel Pty Ltd v Victorian Commission for Gambling Regulation & Anor (Occupational and Business Regulation) [2009] VCAT 2275 (12 November (2009)

At 72: In considering the issue of net social and economic detriment, the Commission must be influenced by the effect that granting the application will have on the community.

At 85: On balance the Commission found it was not satisfied that if the application was granted, the net economic and social impact of the proposal would not be detrimental to the wellbeing of the community.

173

SACES 2005, Community Impacts of EGM Gambling (Victoria and Western Australia)

71% of Australians either slightly or strongly disagreed with the statement that "overall, gambling does more good than harm for the community".

174

Jan Juc Beach Hotel decision, VCGR 2010

At 80: Application refused because if granted "it would result in a sense of discontent or unhappiness in a significant part of the Jan Juc community and would be detrimental to its sense of wellbeing".

Social capital reduced

175

Darebin 2005, Pokie-free Places and Activities

People withdrew from social groups and networks as a result of gambling.

176

SACES 2009, Social Impacts of Gambling

Crowds out other forms of entertainment (p.9).

177

PC Report on Gambling 2010

Affects volunteering rates (S. 6.1).

178

Griswold and Nichols 2006, Social capital and casino gambling in US communities

Found that the presence of casino gambling significantly reduces social capital when a casino is located within 15 miles of a community and impacts on that community's quality of life.

Cultural normalisation of gambling

179

GRA 2010, Children at Risk of Developing Problem Gambling

Children raised in problem gambling families are more likely to develop gambling problems. Gambling behaviour of problem gamblers family members directly influenced their own gambling behaviour by becoming a social norm (S. 10.1.1).

180

Australia's Gambling Industries PC Report 1999

Children who are more familiar with the culture of gambling because of parent's involvement are more likely to develop a problem themselves (Ch. 7).

181

PC Report on Gambling 2010

The liberalisation and normalisation of EGM gambling in Australia has led to higher rates

Impacts (Positive) - Previous

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